X-Message-Number: 1002
Newsgroups: sci.cryonics
From: tolman% (Kenneth Tolman)
Subject: Ice crystal damage 
Date: 16 Jul 92 13:26:05 MDT

  One of the major concerns for current cryonics is ice crystal damage.  How
could this damage be lessened?

  The real question might be- why do ice crystals cause so much damage? I
presume it is because it fits into a regular lattice- which has great
strength and only allows for particular bonding formations.
  Would a regular surfactant alleviate this crystal formation?  Maybe try
freezing some water with soap in it.  
  What are the active sites of enzymes which mitigate ice crystal damage?
What is their basic mechanism?  Presumably they provide alternative stable
bonding patterns for the water molecules- which may imply that a high
molarity is required for it to work.  Probably that which needed the lowest
concentration would be best in terms of toxic contamination.
  As I implied in another posting- the best form of cryoprotectant would be
enzymes produced by ones OWN cells.  That is, one would have a slight
genetic engineering to produce the enzyme which would exist within you 
during your whole life, and when it came time for suspension they would 
maybe only have to do a few minor operations.  There would be no chemical
trauma whatsoever......

  It may be that the relative temperature change affects the ice crystal
formation.  Thus, a slow and steady cooling may actually encourage ice
damage (much as in simulated annealing), whereas a rapid cool off may
inhibit massive ice structure formation.  To achieve this it would probably
require some sort of microwave like device for cooling things quickly.

  So, how can we avoid ice damage anyway?

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