X-Message-Number: 10020
Date: Thu, 9 Jul 1998 03:01:20 -0700 (PDT)
From: Doug Skrecky <>
Subject: erythritol medline posts

  Tetzloff W.  Dauchy F.  Medimagh S.  Carr D.  Bar A.
  IPHAR Institut for Clinical Pharmacology, Hohenkirchen-Siegertsbrunn,
  Tolerance to subchronic, high-dose ingestion of erythritol
  in human volunteers.
  Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology.  24(2 Pt 2):S286-95, 1996 Oct.
  Erythritol is a sugar alcohol (polyol) which is absorbed
  from the small intestine in substantial amounts, not metabolized in the human
  body, and therefore excreted in the urine. Erythritol holds
  promise as a low-calorie sugar substitute. Human tolerance to repeated oral
  doses of erythritol was examined in a double-blind, two-way
  crossover study in 12 healthy, male volunteers. The participants consumed
  erythritol and, for comparison, sucrose for a duration of 7
  days each. The daily dose of the test compounds ingested was 0.3 g/kg on Day
  1, 0.6 g/kg on Day 2, and 1.0 g/kg on subsequent days. The daily dose was
  consumed under supervision in five portions, i.e., with the three main meals,
  a midmorning snack, and during the afternoon. The test compounds were
  incorporated into yoghurt, cookies, soft drinks, and chocolate. On each
  treatment day, body weight and blood pressure were measured and the
  participants were interviewed about side effects and their perception of
  stool and urine production. During the last 96 hr of each treatment period,
  urine was collected at 3-hr intervals during the day and for a 9-hr interval
  overnight for analysis of erythritol and different urinary
  parameters. On Days 3 to 7 of each treatment period, the participants were
  institutionalized. Body weights and blood pressure remained stable during the
  entire study. Signs of gastrointestinal intolerance were not seen and stool
  frequency and appearance were not different between the two treatments. The
  intake of liquids, which were provided ad libitum, was generally rather high
  (32.8 g/kg body wt/day on average) but not different between
  erythritol and sucrose consumption. Urine output also was
  high during both treatment periods. About 78% of ingested
  erythritol was excreted in the urine which led to a higher
  urinary osmolality but did not influence the 24-hr output of creatinine,
  citrate, urea, or electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-, Pi). The excretion of calcium
  was slightly higher during the erythritol test period but in
  absolute terms this increase was small. The urinary excretions of albumin,
  beta 2-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase were slightly elevated
  during the erythritol test period but they were still well
  within the physiological range. None of the observed urinary changes became
  more pronounced with increasing duration of the erythritol
  treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrate that
  the repeated ingestion of erythritol at daily doses of 1
  g/kg body wt was well tolerated by humans.

  Kawamura Y.  Saito Y.  Imamura M.  Modderman JP.
  Nikken Chemicals Co., Ltd., Saitama, Japan.
  Mutagenicity studies on erythritol in bacterial reversion
  assay systems and in Chinese hamster fibroblast cells.
  Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology.  24(2 Pt 2):S261-3, 1996 Oct.
  The sweetener erythritol tested negative in reverse mutation
  assays using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537
  and the WP2 uvrA strain of Escherichia coli. Erythritol
  tested negative in chromosome aberration tests using the Chinese hamster
  fibroblast cell line CHL/IU.

  Dean I.  Jackson F.  Greenough RJ.
  Inveresk Research, Scotland, United Kingdom.
  Chronic (1-year) oral toxicity study of erythritol in dogs.
  Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology.  24(2 Pt 2):S254-60, 1996 Oct.
  The chronic oral toxicity of erythritol was examined by
  feeding erythritol at dietary levels of 0 (controls), 2, 5,
  or 10% to groups of four male and four female dogs for 53 weeks.
  Erythritol was well tolerated at all dose levels without
  evidence of diarrhea. Water consumption was slightly higher in the high-dose
  group than in controls. Body weights and weight gains were not affected by
  treatment. There were no clinically relevant changes in hematological or
  clinicochemical parameters attributable to treatment. In particular, plasma
  electrolyte concentrations remained unaffected. Evaluation of a number of
  urinary parameters (including electrolytes and renal enzymes) was hampered by
  widely varying urine volumes among individual dogs; however, the available
  data did not indicate treatment-related effects on the urinary excretion of
  electrolytes (K+, Na+, Mg2+, and Pi) or enzymes
  (gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and lactate
  dehydrogenase). Quantitation of erythritol in the urine
  demonstrated that 50 to 80% of the ingested dose was absorbed and excreted in
  the urine. Analysis of terminal organ weights did not reveal
  treatment-related differences. No histopathological changes attributable to
  treatment were observed in the kidneys or in any other organ or tissue
  examined. It was concluded that daily erythritol consumption
  of up to 3.5 g/kg body wt was well tolerated by dogs.

Rate This Message: http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/rate.cgi?msg=10020