X-Message-Number: 10650
Date: Wed, 28 Oct 1998 03:05:05 -0800 (PST)
From: Doug Skrecky <>
Subject: medline looks at the iceman

Citations: 1-5
Unique Identifier
  Mayer BX.  Reiter C.  Bereuter TL.
  Institute for Organic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Austria.
  Investigation of the triacylglycerol composition of iceman's
  mummified tissue by high-temperature gas chromatography.
  Journal of Chromatography. B, Biomedical Sciences and Applications. 
  692(1):1-6, 1997 Apr 25.
  The pattern of intact triacylglycerols of a skin sample from the
  5300-year-old Iceman mummy (nicknamed Otzi) was resolved on
  a diphenyl-dimethylpolysiloxane stationary phase by high-temperature gas
  chromatography. Adipocere from a 64-year-old glacier mummy as well as recent
  human subcutaneous fat served as a comparison in this study. Qualitatively,
  the results for mummy samples were similar with well-preserved saturated, but
  decomposed unsaturated, triacylglycerols, the latter being predominant in
  subcutaneous fat. Excellent preservation of triacylglycerols with odd carbon
  numbers and branched acyl chains was observed. The results presented here
  shed new light on the process of mummification.

Unique Identifier
  Gunkel AR.  Freysinger W.  Thumfart WF.  Truppe MJ.  Gaber O.  Kunzel KH. 
  Platzer W.  Tiefenbrunner F.
  Ear, Nose, and Throat Department, University Hospital Innsbruck, Australia.
  Otorhinolaryngologic computer-assisted biopsies of the
  Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery.  123(3):253-6, 1997 Mar.
  BACKGROUND: The Iceman is a prehistoric, completely
  preserved, 5300-year-old male human mummy. OBJECTIVE: To obtain the first
  biopsy specimens from inside the Iceman while meeting an
  extended standard of hygiene and following precise intraoperative guidance to
  the site of biopsy and keeping tissue damage to a minimum. DESIGN: Biopsy
  specimens from the nose, the maxillary sinus, and the larynx of the
  Iceman were obtained. Special caution had to be taken while
  performing the biopsies to not contaminate the Iceman with
  heavy metals or remnants of microorganisms. SUBJECT: The
  Iceman, a cadaver kept frozen in a glacier for 5300 years.
  The Iceman is in an excellent state of preservation and will
  allow fundamental histological, morphological, and molecular genetic insights
  into early man. INTERVENTION: The biopsies were planned and executed with the
  aid of Interventional Video Tomography, a system that guides the surgeon to
  the target area by combining live video with existing imaging modalities. The
  system does not need mechanical fixation of the subject (the
  Iceman) and is barely in physical contact with the subject;
  thus, it was the ideal tool for guiding the surgeon to the site of the biopsy
  samplings through a tiny canal into the nose, the maxillary sinus, and the
  larynx of the Iceman. RESULTS: We have obtained a number of
  tissue samples by precisely guided 3-dimensional navigation. Unnecessary
  tissue damage was avoided. CONCLUSIONS: Visual inspection of the extracted
  mucosa showed typical human cadaver tissue, despite its age, without clinical
  abnormalities. Currently, the samples are being investigated by various
  international scientific groups.

Unique Identifier
  Thumfart WF.  Freysinger W.  Gunkel AR.  Truppe MJ.
  ENT Department, University of Innsbruck, Austria. Walter.Thumfart:uibk.ec.et
  3D image-guided surgery on the example of the 5,300-year-old Innsbruck
  Acta Oto-Laryngologica.  117(2):131-4, 1997 Mar.
  Interventional Video Tomography (IVT) is regularly used for computer-assisted
  3D navigation in ear-, nose, throat, and head & neck surgery in our clinic.
  We present the technology and its application to collect biopsies of a 5,300
  year old, completely conserved male cadaver, the Iceman. IVT
  links intraoperative live video with medical imaging data sets, realizing
  real-time surgical guidance in the live video and/or in the medical images.
  The IVT data contain the video images and the spatial sensor information;
  this has a large potential for documentation, training, teaching, and
  telepresence. IVT allowed us to sample the Iceman's mucosa
  by the minimally invasive endoscopic approach of the maxillary sinus, the
  nasal cavity, and the larynx, minimizing tissue damage. Visual inspection of
  the sinuses and the mucosa revealed the typical mucosa of a fresh cadaver,
  albeit originating from the stone-age.

Unique Identifier
  Thumfart WF.  Freysinger W.  Gunkel AR.  Truppe MJ.  Platzer W.
  Universitats-HNO-Klinik Innsbruck.
  [3D computer-assisted ENT biopsies of the Iceman (see
  comments)]. [German]
  Comment in: HNO 1997 Feb;45(2):61-2
  HNO.  45(2):65-8, 1997 Feb.
  The University of Innsbruck possesses a unique prehistoric, completely
  conserved 5300-year-old human cadaver. We report our experiences during which
  ENT specialists collected samples from various cavities inside the
  Iceman. Guidance of biopsy instruments was accomplished with
  computer-assisted navigation based on Interventional Video Tomography. This
  technology allows surgical guidance by interlinking currently available
  imaging modalities with live endoscopic video. The system operates without
  patient fixation and is practically free of external contact. Apart from
  sterility, special precautionary measures were necessary to avoid
  contamination with heavy metals or microorganisms. Visual inspection of the
  samples of mucosa from the nose, maxillary sinus and larynx revealed the
  typical patterns of a human cadaver without overt pathology.

Unique Identifier
  Williams AC.  Edwards HG.  Barry BW.
  School of Pharmacy, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK.
  The 'Iceman': molecular structure of 5200-year-old skin
  characterised by Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy.
  Biochimica et Biophysica Acta.  1246(1):98-105, 1995 Jan 5.
  The molecular state of about 5200-year-old skin from the so-called
  'Iceman' (Similaun man or Otzi) has been characterised using
  Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, and has been compared with that of
  contemporary man. Contemporary skin was also freeze-dried (to mimic the
  conditions under which the ancient skin was preserved) and its molecular
  structure was compared with that of Iceman skin. The results
  showed that the proteinaceous moiety of the ancient skin had degraded
  considerably and, although olefinic bonds had probably oxidised, the lipoidal
  component was largely unaltered. Electron microscopical comparisons of
  Iceman and contemporary skin showed that the gross structure
  of Iceman skin had survived essentially intact for five

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