X-Message-Number: 12025
Date: Sun, 27 Jun 1999 23:28:23 -0700 (PDT)
From: Doug Skrecky <>
Subject: much freezing damage occurs during rewarming

  Fowler AJ.  Toner M.
  Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth
  02747, USA.
  Prevention of hemolysis in rapidly frozen
  erythrocytes by using a laser pulse.
  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.  858:245-52, 1998 Sep 11.
  This paper reports on the successful recovery of rapidly frozen unprotected
  erythrocytes by vitrification of the intracellular solution with a laser
  pulse prior to thawing. Erythrocytes that were frozen at 10,000 degrees C/min
  exhibited 100% hemolysis when thawed unless they were first
  irradiated by a 7 ns. laser pulse that selectively targeted the intracellular
  ice so that it was melted and resolidified into a glass phase. Up to 80% of
  the cells treated in this way remained intact after thawing. Wright's
  staining confirmed a healthy cell morphology and the retention of hemoglobin
  in the laser treated cells. While it is well known that small amounts of
  intracellular ice can be tolerated by cells, the findings of this study are
  the first to indicate that intracellular ice may be innocuous even when
  formed in substantial quantities provided that crystal growth and coalescence
  can somehow be avoided during warming.

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