X-Message-Number: 12113
Date: Sun, 11 Jul 1999 08:50:35 -0700 (PDT)
From: Doug Skrecky <>
Subject: water: an overlooked supplement?

  Kleiner SM.
  Nutritional Sciences Program, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
  Water: an essential but overlooked
  nutrient. [Review] [81 refs]
  Journal of the American Dietetic Association.  99(2):200-6, 1999 Feb.
  Water is an essential nutrient required for
  life. To be well hydrated, the average sedentary adult man must consume at
  least 2,900 mL (12 c) fluid per day, and the average sedentary adult woman at
  least 2,200 mL (9 c) fluid per day, in the form of noncaffeinated,
  nonalcoholic beverages, soups, and foods. Solid foods contribute
  approximately 1,000 mL (4 c) water, with an additional 250
  mL (1 c) coming from the water of oxidation. The Nationwide
  Food Consumption Surveys indicate that a portion of the population may be
  chronically mildly dehydrated. Several factors may increase the likelihood of
  chronic, mild dehydration, including a poor thirst mechanism, dissatisfaction
  with the taste of water, common consumption of the natural
  diuretics caffeine and alcohol, participation in exercise, and environmental
  conditions. Dehydration of as little as 2% loss of body weight results in
  impaired physiological and performance responses. New research indicates that
  fluid consumption in general and water consumption in
  particular can have an effect on the risk of urinary stone disease; cancers
  of the breast, colon, and urinary tract; childhood and adolescent obesity;
  mitral valve prolapse; salivary gland function; and overall health in the
  elderly. Dietitians should be encouraged to promote and monitor fluid and
  water intake among all of their clients and patients through
  education and to help them design a fluid intake plan. The influence of
  chronic mild dehydration on health and disease merits further research.
  [References: 81]

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