X-Message-Number: 13138
Date: Mon, 24 Jan 2000 12:17:58 -0800 (PST)
From: Doug Skrecky <>
Subject: state of the art in cryopreservation circa 1998

  Bautista JA.  Kanagawa H.
  Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary
  Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. 
  Current status of vitrification of embryos and oocytes in domestic animals:
  ethylene glycol as an emerging cryoprotectant of choice.
  [Review] [41 refs]
  Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research.  45(4):183-91, 1998 Feb.
  The cryopreservation of mammalian embryos has become an integral part of
  methods to control animal reproduction. Numerous vitrification solutions have
  been formulated with ethylene glycol in combination with macromolecules,
  sugars and other cryoprotective agents. These indicate that a study of
  ethylene glycol as a cryoprotectant of choice in
  vitrification studies would be promising. To understand the cryobiology of
  ethylene glycol, several factors have to be studied. These are:
  cryoprotectant toxicity, osmotic stress and
  temperature at exposure. Understanding these factors could lead to the
  formulation of vitrification protocols that would lead to higher viability
  rates after cooling. First, ethylene glycol must be used as the sole
  cryoprotectant in a solution without macromolecules and
  sugars. Second, partial dehydration and permeation prior to cooling to
  subzero temperatures must be studied to achieve accurate exposure and a
  one-step dilution method. Third, the toxic effects of ethylene glycol must be
  overcome without sacrificing its vitrification properties by combining
  step-wise exposure at appropriate temperatures, low concentration and
  decreased volume. Fourth, the long-term effects of ethylene glycol on exposed
  or vitrified embryos must be determined. Lastly, the influence of culture on
  the viability of vitrified embryos must be studied to improve viability rates
  after warming. [References: 41]

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