X-Message-Number: 15701
Date: Tue, 20 Feb 2001 11:36:57 -0800 (PST)
From: Doug Skrecky <>
Subject: neuroprotective effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate/DMSO

Treatment of head injury in mice, using a fructose 1,6-diphosphate 
and dimethyl sulfoxide combination.
Neurosurgery 37(2): 273-9 Aug 1995

Mice were subjected to moderate (800 g/cm force) or severe 
(900 g/cm force) head injury and treated 5 minutes later 
with various compounds. treatments consisted of intravenous 
administration of the following compounds: 1) fructose
1,6-diphosphate (FDP), 2)dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 3)FDP+DMSO, 
and 4)vehicle nontreated. Sensory-motor evaluations 1 and 2 
hours after 800 g/cm-force head injury  showed that significant 
protection of motor function (grip test) was achieved with 
FDP + DMSO but not with treatment by either drug alone. Evaluation
of mice following a severe 900-g/cm force injury demonstrated 
significant survival after treatment with FDP + DMSO but not with 
the vehicle or treatment by either of these agents alone. 
Histopathological  morphometry indicated that cortical and 
hippocampal CA1 neurons were markedly protected from damage when
mice were treated with combined FDP + DMSO. More modest protection 
of CA1 but not cortical neurons was observed after treatment with 
DMSO alone but not after treatment with FDP alone or administration 
of the vehicle. These findings indicate that combining FDP with DMSO
results in considerable synergy in protecting animals from sensory-motor
loss and neuronal brain damage and in ultimate survival stemming from a
moderate or severe closed head injury.

Additional comment by poster:

    Fructose 1,6-diphosphate is unique among sugars, and their 
derivatives, in being able to penetrate cell membranes. It has 
been used as an additive in transplantation solutions, to prevent ATP
loss. The present result suggests that FDP might make a fine addition 
to cryoprotective vitrification solutions. To my knowledge, there are 
no published results on the effect of FDP on cryopreservation.

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