X-Message-Number: 16621
Date: Thu, 21 Jun 2001 15:17:09 EDT
Subject: References for Male vs. Female Reproductive Strategies

Jessica Lemler asked for references regarding my assertions vis a vis male 
vs. female reproductive strategies Here is a paper with some references that 
supports my general contention. I've excerpted two paragraphs from it. It is 
one of the many articles on this topic available on the Internet:


"Evidence from studies using all of the techniques described above indicate 
that across all human societies women value economic resources substantially 
more than men do. Trivers (1985) found that American men who marry in a given 
year generally earn 50% more money than men of the same age who do not marry. 
In a cross-cultural survey, Buss (1989) showed that women valued financial 
prospects around twice as highly as men. Similarly Kenrick et al., (1990) 
reported that the minimum acceptable earning capacity for a partner is around 
70% that of other men. 

Studies of personal ads confirm that women seek financial security from a 
potential partner. For example Wiederman (1993) reported than in an analysis 
of more than 1000 such ads female advertisers seek resources 11 times more 
often than males and males are aware of this request as they are likely to 
offer resources and the willingness to invest them (e.g.    homeowner   , 

   employed       educated   ,    generous nature    than women. Males who did 
their resources were also significantly more likely to receive a reply to 
their ad. Thiessen et al., (1993) also reported that males were significantly 
more likely to offer resources, while women were more likely to seek them. 

Buss, D. (1989). Sex difference in human mate preferences: Evolutionary 
hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain
Sciences, 12, 1-49.

Gould, J. & Gould, C. (1989). Sexual Selection. NY: Scientific American 

Tanner, NM On Becoming Human, Cambridge University Press (1981) Cambridge.

Kenrick, D.T., & Keefe, R.C. (1992). Age preferences in mates reflect sex 
differences in human reproductive strategies. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 
15: 75-133. 

Townsend, J.M., & Levy, G.D. (1990a). Effects of potential partner   s physical
attractiveness and socioeconomic status on sexuality and partner selection. 
Archives of Sexual Behaviour, 19: 149 - 164. 

Kenrick, D.T., Sadella, E.K., Groth, G., & Trost, M.R.(1990). Evolution, 
traits, and the stages of human courtship: qualifying theparental investment 
model. Journal of Personality, 58: 97-116. 

Thiessen, D., Young, R.K., & Burroughs, R. (1993). Lonely hearts 
advertisements reflect sexually dimorphic mating strategies. Ethology and 
Sociobiology, 14: 209-229. 

Wiederman, M.W. (1993). Evolved gender differences in mate preferences: 
evidence from personal advertisements. Ethology and Sociobiology, 14: 
331-352. "

Mike Darwin

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