X-Message-Number: 19582
Date: Sun, 21 Jul 2002 11:15:35 -0700 (PDT)
From: Doug Skrecky <>
Subject: the early history of vitrification

Looks like Elford & Walter had vitrification pretty much figured out 30
years ago.

All muscles were incubated for 60 min at +37 C in solutions  containing
20% (w/w) DMSO. Interesting that all ability to contract is suppressed
during contact with much lower concentrations of DMSO. Subsequent
incubation was in various different  solutions containing 30, 40, 50, and
60% (w/v) DMSO at temperatures of -7, -14, -22, and -39 C respectively
[for 1 hr at each temperature],  before they were finally cooled to -79 C
and left overnight. Some very good results were obtained with low pH
PIPES. The 1978 paper further builds on these interesting results.

---------- Forwarded message ----------
Citations: 1-2
  Taylor MJ.  Walter CA.  Elford BC.
  The pH-dependent recovery of smooth muscle from storage at -13 degrees C in
  unfrozen media.
  Cryobiology.  15(4):452-60, 1978 Aug.

  Elford BC.  Walter CA.
  Effects of electrolyte composition and pH on the structure and function of
  smooth muscle cooled to -79 degrees C in unfrozen media.
  Cryobiology.  9(2):82-100, 1972 Apr.

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