X-Message-Number: 20137
Date: Sun, 22 Sep 2002 11:24:25 -0700 (PDT)
From: Doug Skrecky <>
Subject: Lemon oil as a possible additive to cryoprotectant solutions?

From: mike
Newsgroups: alt.baldspot

: Pharmacol Res 2002 Jun;45(6):469
Inhibitory effect of apoptosis in human astrocytes CCF-STTG1 cells by
lemon oil.

Koo H, Hong S, Kim C, Ahn J, Lee Y, Kim J, Lyu Y, Kim H.

Department of Oriental Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University,
KI Co. Ltd. Iksan, Chonbuk, 570-749, Republic of Korea

The effects of lemon pure essential oils on the heat shock-induced
apoptosis in human astrocytes cell line CCF-STTG1 were examined. In
previous studies, heat shock has been reported to induce the apoptosis or
programmed cell death through the activation of caspase-3. Treatment of
heat shock on CCF-STTG1 cells markedly induced apoptotic cell death as
determined by flow cytometry. Interestingly, pre-treatment with lemon pure
essential oils on CCF-STTG1 cells inhibited the heat shock-induced
apoptosis. Lemon oil also inhibited the heat shock-induced apoptosis in
primary cultured rat astrocytes. To determine whether lemon oil inhibits
the heat shock-induced activation of the apoptotic proteases, activation
of caspase-3 was assessed by Western blotting.

DNA fragmentation, giemsa staining, and heat shock-induced activation of
caspase-3 were blocked by lemon pure essential oil, which is consistent
with flow cytometry.

Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), the cysteine protease substrate, was
fragmented as a consequence of apoptosis by heat shock. Lemon oil
inhibited the PARP fragmentation. These results suggest that lemon pure
essential oils may modulate the apoptosis through the activation of the
interleukin-1 beta -converting enzyme-like caspases.
: Drugs Exp Clin Res 1999;25(6):281-7
Oxidative stress and antioxidants at skin biosurface: a novel antioxidant
from lemon oil capable of inhibiting oxidative damage to the skin.

Calabrese V, Scapagnini G, Randazzo SD, Randazzo G, Catalano C, Geraci G,
Morganti P.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Chemistry, University of Catania,

Atmospheric pollutants are an important source of oxidative and
nitrosative stress both to terrestrial plants and to animals. Skin, which
has a highly differentiated and certainly complex organizational
structure, is particularly vulnerable to free radical damage because of
its contact with oxygen and with other environmental stimuli. Fruit and
vegetables contain several classes of compounds that when ingested can
potentially contribute to antioxidant defenses. In the present study we
employed a novel gas chromatographic method to assess the antioxidant
properties of a natural compound isolated from lemon oil, which we have
called Lem1. We provide experimental evidence that Lem1 is endowed with a
strong antioxidant activity and that it is capable of inhibiting free
radical-mediated reactions, as evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The present
study extends our previous findings and demonstrates that topical
application of Lem1 in healthy volunteers significantly increases the
antioxidative potential of skin biosurface, thus highlighting the
effectiveness of a natural antioxidant biotechnology in the antiaging
management of skin.

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