X-Message-Number: 32606
Date: Thu, 3 Jun 2010 22:32:58 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: cardamom is a probable human life extender

[At 3 gm/day cardamom over 12 weeks gradually lowered systolic blood pressure by
19 mmHg, disatolic blood pressure by 12 mm Hg, triglycerides by 15%, and LDL 
cholesterol by 25%. Cardamom also heals ulcers, reduces inflammation and may 
reduce cancer risk.]

Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2009 Dec;46(6):503-6.

Blood pressure lowering, fibrinolysis enhancing and antioxidant activities of 
cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum).

Verma SK, Jain V, Katewa SS. Indigenous Drug Research Center, Department of 
Medicine, RNT Medical College, Udaipur 313 001, Rajasthan, India.

    Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton. (Small cardamom) fruit powder was evaluated
    for its antihypertensive potential and its effect on some of the 
    cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with stage 1 hypertension. 
    Twenty, newly diagnosed individuals with primary hypertension of stage 1 
    were administered 3 g of cardamom powder in two divided doses for 12 weeks. 
    Blood pressure was recorded initially and at 4 weeks interval for 3 months. 
    Blood samples were also collected initially and at 4 weeks interval for 
    estimation of lipid profile, fibrinogen and fibrinolysis. Total antioxidant 
    status, however, was assessed initially and at the end of the study. 
    Administration of 3 g cardamom powder significantly (p<0.001) decreased 
    systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure and significantly (p<0.05) 
    increased fibrinolytic activity at the end of 12th week. Total antioxidant 
    status was also significantly (p<0.05) increased by 90% at the end of 3 
    months. However, fibrinogen and lipid levels were not significantly altered.
    All study subjects experienced a feeling of well being without any 
    side-effects. Thus, the present study demonstrates that small cardamom 
    effectively reduces blood pressure, enhances fibrinolysis and improves 
    antioxidant status, without significantly altering blood lipids and 
    fibrinogen levels in stage 1 hypertensive individuals.
PMID: 20361714

J Med Food. 2010 Apr;13(2):371-81.

In vitro investigation of the potential immunomodulatory and anti-cancer 
activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum).

Majdalawieh AF, Carr RI. Department of Biology and Chemistry, Faculty of Arts 
and Sciences, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

    Although the immunomodulatory effects of many herbs have been extensively 
    studied, research related to possible immunomodulatory effects of various 
    spices is relatively scarce. Here, the potential immunomodulatory effects of
    black pepper and cardamom are investigated. Our data show that black pepper
    and cardamom aqueous extracts significantly enhance splenocyte 
    proliferation in a dose-dependent, synergistic fashion. Enzyme-linked 
    immunosorbent assay experiments reveal that black pepper and cardamom 
    significantly enhance and suppress, respectively, T helper (Th)1 cytokine 
    release by splenocytes. Conversely, Th2 cytokine release by splenocytes is 
    significantly suppressed and enhanced by black pepper and cardamom, 
    respectively. Experimental evidence suggests that black pepper and cardamom 
    extracts exert pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively. 
    Consistently, nitric oxide production by macrophages is significantly 
    augmented and reduced by black pepper and cardamom, respectively. 
    Remarkably, it is evident that black pepper and cardamom extracts 
    significantly enhance the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells, 
    indicating their potential anti-cancer effects. Our findings strongly 
    suggest that black pepper and cardamom exert immunomodulatory roles and 
    antitumor activities, and hence they manifest themselves as natural agents 
    that can promote the maintenance of a healthy immune system. We anticipate 
    that black pepper and cardamom constituents can be used as potential 
    therapeutic tools to regulate inflammatory responses and prevent/attenuate 
PMID: 20210607

J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jan 16;103(2):149-53. Epub 2005 Nov 17.

Gastroprotective effect of cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum Maton. fruits in rats.

Jamal A, Javed K, Aslam M, Jafri MA. Department of Ilmul Advia, Faculty of 
Medicine (Unani), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-110 062, India.

    Cardamom, the fruits of Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Zingiberaceae) commonly
    known as "Heel khurd" is used in Unani system of medicine to treat 
    gastrointestinal disorders. A crude methanolic extract (TM), essential oil 
    (EO), petroleum ether soluble (PS) and insoluble (PI) fractions of 
    methanolic extract, were studied in rats at doses of 100-500, 12.5-50, 
    12.5-150 and 450 mg/kg, respectively for their ability to inhibit the 
    gastric lesions induced by aspirin, ethanol and pylorous ligature. In 
    addition their effects on wall mucus and gastric acid output were recorded. 
    All fractions (TM, EO, PS, PI) significantly inhibited gastric lesions 
    induced by ethanol and aspirin but not those induced by pylorus ligation. TM
    proved to be active reducing lesions by about 70% in the EtOH-induced ulcer
    model at 500 mg/kg. The PS fraction reduced the lesions by 50% at 50 and 
    100mg/kg (no dose response was observed) with similar effect than the PI 
    fraction at 450 mg/kg. In the aspirin-induced gastric ulcer, the best 
    gastroprotective effect was found in the PS fraction, which inhibited 
    lesions by nearly 100% at 12.5mg/kg. In our experimental conditions, the PS 
    extract at doses >or=12.5mg/kg proved to be more active than ranitidine at 
PMID: 16298093

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2005 Apr-Jun;6(2):118-22.

Dietary cardamom inhibits the formation of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt 
foci in mice and reduces COX-2 and iNOS expression in the colon.

Sengupta A, Ghosh S, Bhattacharjee S. Department of Cancer Chemoprevention, 
Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata 700026, India.

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on identifying naturally 
    occurring chemopreventive compounds capable of inhibiting, retarding, or 
    reversing the multi-step carcinogenesis. The primary aim of the present 
    study was to identify the effects of a commonly consumed spice, viz., 
    cardamom against azoxymethane (AOM) induced colonic aberrant crypt foci 
    (ACF) in Swiss Albino mice. The secondary aim, was to explore the ability of
    cardamom to modulate the status of proliferation and apoptosis, and to 
    understand its role in altering cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible 
    nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Male Swiss albino mice were 
    injected with AOM (dose: 5mg/Kg body weight) or saline (Group 1) weekly once
    for two weeks. The AOM-injected mice were randomly assigned to two groups 
    (Groups 2 and 3). While all the groups were on standard lab chow, Group 3 
    received oral doses of 0.5% cardamom, in aqueous suspension, daily for 8 
    weeks. Following treatment, significant reduction in the incidences of 
    aberrant crypt foci (p<0.05) was observed. This reduction in ACF was 
    accompanied by suppression of cell proliferation (mean Brdu LI in carcinogen
    control =13.91+/-3.31, and 0.5% cardamom =2.723+/-0.830) and induction of 
    apoptosis (mean AI in carcinogen control=1.547+/-0.42 and 0.5% cardamom = 
    6.61+/-0.55). Moreover, reduction of both COX-2 and iNOS expression was also
    observed. These results suggest that aqueous suspensions of cardamom have 
    protective effects on experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis. Cardamom 
    as a whole and its active components require further attention if the use of
    this spice is to be recommended for cancer prevention.
PMID: 16101317

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