X-Message-Number: 33132
Date: Fri, 24 Dec 2010 13:12:30 -0800 (PST)
Subject: is trans-palmitoleic acid the longevity secret of Japanese

Dairy products contain trans-palmitoleic acid, which in turn is associated with 
higher HDL, lower C-reactive protein levels, as well as other longevity 
indicators. Survival of Japanese centenarians who favoured dairy products turned
out to be highest in all dietary subgroups. Could trans-palmitoleic acid 
increase human maximum lifespan?

Ann Intern Med. 2010 Dec 21;153(12):790-9.

Trans-palmitoleic Acid, metabolic risk factors, and new-onset diabetes in u.s. 
Adults: a cohort study.

Mozaffarian D, Cao H, King IB, Lemaitre RN, Song X, Siscovick DS, Hotamisligil 
GS. Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Harvard School of 
Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, 
Maryland; University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico; and Fred Hutchinson
Cancer Research Center and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

    Background: Palmitoleic acid (cis-16:1n-7), which is produced by endogenous 
    fat synthesis, has been linked to both beneficial and deleterious metabolic 
    effects, potentially confounded by diverse determinants and tissue sources 
    of endogenous production. Trans-palmitoleate (trans-16:1n-7) represents a 
    distinctly exogenous source of 16:1n-7, unconfounded by endogenous synthesis
    or its determinants, that may be uniquely informative. Objective: To 
    investigate whether circulating trans-palmitoleate is independently related 
    to lower metabolic risk and incident type 2 diabetes. Design: Prospective 
    cohort study from 1992 to 2006. Setting: Four U.S. communities. Patients: 
    3736 adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Measurements: Anthropometric
    characteristics and levels of plasma phospholipid fatty acids, blood 
    lipids, inflammatory markers, and glucose-insulin measured at baseline in 
    1992 and dietary habits measured 3 years earlier. Multivariate-adjusted 
    models were used to investigate how demographic, clinical, and lifestyle 
    factors independently related to plasma phospholipid trans-palmitoleate; how
    trans-palmitoleate related to major metabolic risk factors; and how 
    trans-palmitoleate related to new-onset diabetes (304 incident cases). 
    Findings were validated for metabolic risk factors in an independent cohort 
    of 327 women. Results: In multivariate analyses, whole-fat dairy consumption
    was most strongly associated with higher trans-palmitoleate levels. Higher 
    trans-palmitoleate levels were associated with slightly lower adiposity and,
    independently, with higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels 
    (1.9% across quintiles; P = 0.040), lower triglyceride levels (-19.0%; P < 
    0.001), a lower total cholesterol-HDL cholesterol ratio (-4.7%; P < 0.001), 
    lower C-reactive protein levels (-13.8%; P = 0.05), and lower insulin 
    resistance (-16.7%, P < 0.001). Trans-palmitoleate was also associated with 
    a substantially lower incidence of diabetes, with multivariate hazard ratios
    of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.64) and 0.38 (CI, 0.24 to 0.62) in quintiles 4 
    and 5 versus quintile 1 (P for trend < 0.001). Findings were independent of 
    estimated dairy consumption or other fatty acid dairy biomarkers. Protective
    associations with metabolic risk factors were confirmed in the validation 
    cohort. Limitation: Results could be affected by measurement error or 
    residual confounding. Conclusion: Circulating trans-palmitoleate is 
    associated with lower insulin resistance, presence of atherogenic 
    dyslipidemia, and incident diabetes. Our findings may explain previously 
    observed metabolic benefits of dairy consumption and support the need for 
    detailed further experimental and clinical investigation. Primary Funding 
    Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and National Institute of 
    Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of 
PMID: 21173413

After 7 additional years the only surviving Japanese centenarians were those who
favoured dairy products.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2003 Apr;49(2):133-8.
Dietary patterns and further survival in Japanese centenarians.

Shimizu K, Takeda S, Noji H, Hirose N, Ebihara Y, Arai Y, Hamamatsu M, Nakazawa 
S, Gondo Y, Konishi K.

Health Care Center, Shoko-Chukin Bank, 2-10-17 Yaesu, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0028, 

    We have previously reported that centenarians (persons > or = 100 y old) in 
    Tokyo prefer dairy products. Dietary preferences may be associated with 
    longevity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship 
    between dietary patterns and further survival in centenarians. During 
    1992-1999, we examined the dietary practices of 104 centenarians (29 men and
    75 women; mean age, 100.3 +/- 0.9 y) who lived in the Tokyo metropolitan 
    area. Dietary patterns were classified by kappa-means cluster analysis. As 
    clinical co-variables, we considered activities of daily living, cognitive 
    function, nutritional status, presence of important disease, gender, and age
    at the time of the initial survey. Survival data were recorded yearly until
    2001, and then tested with Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log rank 
    statistic. Four dietary patterns were identified: a pattern preferring 
    vegetables (n = 33), a pattern preferring dairy products (n = 26), a pattern
    preferring beverages (n = 10), and a pattern preferring cereals (n = 35). 
    No clinical variables differed between the four dietary patterns. In 2001, 
    28 centenarians were still alive. The survival rate for those preferring 
    dairy products was the highest of the four dietary patterns; in particular, 
    being significantly higher than the pattern preferring beverages (p = 
    0.048). A dietary pattern preferring dairy products was associated with 
    increased survival in Tokyo-area centenarians.
PMID: 12887160

Note that cis-palmitoleic acid is not beneficial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec;92(6):1350-8. Epub 2010 Oct 13.

Circulating palmitoleic acid and risk of metabolic abnormalities and new-onset 

Mozaffarian D, Cao H, King IB, Lemaitre RN, Song X, Siscovick DS, Hotamisligil 
GS. Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and Channing Laboratory, Department of 
Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School and 
Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

  BACKGROUND: Animal experiments suggest that circulating palmitoleic acid 
  (cis-16:1n-7) from adipocyte de novo fatty acid synthesis may directly 
  regulate insulin resistance and metabolic dysregulation.

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the independent determinants of circulating 
palmitoleate in free-living humans and whether palmitoleate is related to lower 
metabolic risk and the incidence of diabetes.

DESIGN: In a prospective cohort of 3630 US men and women in the Cardiovascular 
Health Study, plasma phospholipid fatty acids, anthropometric variables, blood 
lipids, inflammatory markers, and glucose and insulin concentrations were 
measured between 1992 and 2006 by using standardized methods. Independent 
determinants of plasma phospholipid palmitoleate and relations of palmitoleate 
with metabolic risk factors were investigated by using multivariable-adjusted 
linear regression. Relations with incident diabetes (296 incident cases) were 
investigated by using Cox proportional hazards.

RESULTS: The mean (  SD) palmitoleate value was 0.49   0.20% (range: 0.11-2.55%)
of total fatty acids. Greater body mass index, carbohydrate intake, protein 
intake, and alcohol use were each independent lifestyle correlates of higher 
palmitoleate concentrations. In multivariable analyses that adjusted for these 
factors and other potential confounders, higher palmitoleate concentrations were
independently associated with lower LDL cholesterol (P < 0.001), higher HDL 
cholesterol (P < 0.001), lower total:HDL-cholesterol ratio (P = 0.04), and lower
fibrinogen (P < 0.001). However, palmitoleate was also associated with higher 
triglycerides (P < 0.001) and (in men only) with greater insulin resistance (P <
0.001). Palmitoleate was not significantly associated with incident diabetes.

CONCLUSIONS: Adiposity (energy imbalance), carbohydrate consumption, and alcohol
use-even within typical ranges-are associated with higher circulating 
palmitoleate concentrations. Circulating palmitoleate is robustly associated 
with multiple metabolic risk factors but in mixed directions, perhaps related to
divergent lifestyle determinants or endogenous sources (liver, adipose tissue) 
of fatty acid synthesis.
PMID: 20943795

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