X-Message-Number: 7648
Date: Wed, 5 Feb 1997 08:41:44 -0700 (MST)
From: Fred Chamberlain <>
Subject: Clarifications/Corrections re: Visser Demonstrations

From:  Fred Chamberlain, re:

>Message #7635 From: 
>Date: Tue, 4 Feb 1997 02:51:23 -0500 (EST)
>Subject: Rat hearts Friday Jan. 31

>Report of Andy Zawacki, slightly edited:

>Once the hearts were perfused, they were left connected to the cannula on the
>Langendorff system. The heart was covered in a shroud of cotton that was
>secured to the cannula above the aorta. The cotton shroud was then soaked
>with cold cryoprotectant. The flow of cryoprotectant was then turned off. A
>container of liquid nitrogen was brought up under the heart and slowly moved
>up to the apex of the heart and held there for 30 seconds. The container of
>liquid nitrogen was then raised up to cover the rest of the heart and held
>for 30 seconds longer.>

>Though there was some concern that the heart was not fully immersed in liquid
>nitrogen for the final 30 seconds, it appeared to me, considering the way
>liquid nitrogen boils, that it was covered. [And Andy has a lot of experience
>in viewing things in liquid nitrogen under a variety of conditions. --R.E.]


Though it might have appeared otherwise to observers, a review of a
videotape of this run has showed that full immersion was not accomplished.
A lot of vapor was emitted, and this may have made it difficult even for
those close by to be sure of the level.  The videotape, on the other hand,
shows the upper part of the shroud being out of the liquid nitrogen for the
entire period of exposure.

After removal from liquid nitrogen, there is (that is, the videotape shows)
a boundary line about half way down the shroud.  Below that line, the
surface is dull white and dry looking, an indication that the surface
photographed was solid.  Above that line, there is a different, glistening
surface.  It seems unchanged from the appearance just prior to exposure to
liquid nitrogen.

The period of exposure, in any case, was brief, compared with the standards
set for final demonstrations on Sunday, 2/2/97 (20 minutes of total
immersion).  We might have hoped that even with total immersion for longer
periods, those trials would have showed evidence of viability, and that the
earlier experiments would (thus) have been irrelevant.

As mentioned in an earlier posting, Alcor will now pursue acquisition of
fresh cryoprotective agent from the same source as used by the Vissers, with
any custom distillation being to the same standards as they have specified.
After we run tests with this, the results will be reported on CryoNet.

Fred Chamberlain, President ()
Alcor Life Extension Foundation
Non-profit cryonic suspension services since 1972.
7895 E. Acoma Dr., Suite 110, Scottsdale AZ 85260-6916
Phone (602) 922-9013  (800) 367-2228   FAX (602) 922-9027
 for general requests

*                  For most human beings,                  *
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