X-Message-Number: 7719
Date: Fri, 21 Feb 1997 11:06:37 -0500 (EST)
Subject: ice damage

Brian Wowk's #7715, including discussion of ice damage, is a bit misleading
in some respects. "...ice squeezes vital ions and proteins out of the tissue,
forcing them into shrinking pockets of residual unfrozen water. Even the
fabric of cells themselves is crushed into these tiny spaces among the ice

Actually, the expansion of water as it freezes is only roughly 10%; hence, on
average, tissues are NOT "squeezed into tiny spaces," although some may be. 

For a more balanced and optimistic discussion of ice damage (and limitations
thereof), see e.g. Greg Fahy's sworn declaration in the Dora Kent case (Case
No. 191277, Superior Court, County of Riverside, California, Appendix of
Declarations, dated Feb. 1, 1988). (The Immortalist Society has reprints

Robert Ettinger
Immortalist Society
Cryonics Institute

Rate This Message: http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/rate.cgi?msg=7719