X-Message-Number: 9457
Date: Sat, 11 Apr 1998 17:57:34 -0700
From: Paul Wakfer <>
Subject: Re: CryoNet #9429: 21CM
References: <>

> Message #9429
> Date: Thu, 9 Apr 1998 10:30:34 -0400
> From: Saul Kent <>
> Subject: 21CM

>         Actually, suspended animation research has
> always been the heart of the 21CM program.

In as much as 21CM is realizing the purposes for which I became heavily
involved with cryonics 6 years ago (the promotion and execution of
mainstream publishable research to both prove and improve our product),
I am delighted with the progress and direction of 21CM, as I expect are
most other cryonicists. However, I wish also to see that historical
accuracy of information is maintained against the natural tendency to
let current situations assume "center stage" and totally replace in ones
mind all thoughts of how we got to where we are. In this regard, Saul's
statement above and some others that I have seen here recently are
(unintentionally, I am sure) inaccurate and misleading. 

1. At the same time (Jan 1992) that I arrived in Southern California
with some minimal funds to invest in cryonics research (6 months after
Jerry Leaf's untimely cryopreservation and loss from Alcor and Cryovita
Laboratories, Inc (CLI)), Mike Darwin, to whom I had been attracted for
his reporting integrity and scientific approach, left Alcor.

2. I invested $50K+ dollars in CLI, became its CEO and by May 1992 had
joined CLI resources and other funds supplied by myself operating as PW
Biomedical Services, with Mike Darwin, who supplied equipment purchased
from the proceeds of the key-man life insurance which he had held on
Jerry Leaf.

3. Until Sep 1993, at the "Colton Lab" CLI, with Mike Darwin as research
director, conducted canine asanguinous hypothermia (CAH) experiments and
a few canine ischemia experiments (the latter all dismal failures). In
fact, Saul's dog Franklin, came not from any 21CM experiment, but from
the first successful CAH experiment by CLI at the Colton lab in August
1992. Franklin owes his life to 3 weeks of round the clock intensive
care by the combination of Mike Darwin, Naomi Reynolds, and myself.

4. There were several reasons why we did research in CAH instead of
cryopreservation. First, it was a natural extension of, and used mostly
the same equipment as did, the cryonic suspensions of Mike Darwin's
BioPreservation (not a formal company until Oct 1993) suspension team
the major reason for which he had purchased the equipment. The second
reason was that recovering the capability of performing essentially
reversible techniques in the first - above freezing - phase of cryonics
procedures was a necessary first goal both for suspensions and for
research. (Much of this capability had unfortunately been lost with
Jerry Leaf's departure into stasis.) Finally, Mike Darwin felt more
confident of being able to produce successful results in this more
medically oriented area of which he has more knowledge, training and

5. In the spring of 1993, after much convincing persuasion by Saul (who
at that time still and for several years previously, because of his -
and LEF's - fight with the FDA, could afford little monetary help for
any research effort) Mike Darwin and I agree to join with him as
co-founders of 21CM. At the same time, it was agreed that CLI would
assign its CAH and ischemia work to 21CM - and a contractual agreement
was signed which detailed this arrangement and specified that 21CM would
attempt to carry this work into mainstream applications and to "make
money" from the CLI initiated research and results. This attempt to
connect research important for cryonics to mainstream biomedical R&D and
at the same time provide funding for cryopreservation R&D is what
attracted me to the 21CM idea and is the reason why a "generic" name was
chosen (the name was Saul's brainchild). However, this same set of
discussions about the division of the work that would be done by each
entity (21CM and CLI), also concluded that CLI would be the vehicle
pursuing research on developing less damaging brain cryopreservation
(which would lead eventually to perfected suspended animation - although
we hardly entertained such "far-away" thoughts at that time). This last
was in tune with both the desires and legacy of Jerry Leaf, and my own
desires as someone not particularly interested in spending my precious
time producing things for standard medicine, but instead in striving to
extend my life so that I could do more of the many other kinds of the
activities for which I thirsted. Furthermore, as I have just implied,
the 21CM venture was "supposed" to generate profits within 5 years or so
which would be applied to finance the CLI cryopreservation research.

6. In May of 1993, we incorporated 21CM, a prospectus was written for
investment raising purposes and a new research facility with more room
and proper zoning was sought. Both the prospectus/investment
solicitation and the purchase of the new facility by 21CM (instead of
the already existing and more well-known CLI), were in tune with our
plans that 21CM should be a "respectable" mainstream biomedical R&D
company, albeit run by and for cryonics "sympathizers". The response to
the 21CM initial prospectus was dismal (to say the least), however,
fresh from our Colton successes, determined as ever to see things
proceed (even if I went broke in the process), still having some assets
left, and always optimistic that we could make our "wonderful" research
become income producing, I convinced both Saul and Mike Darwin to
proceed with our plans to purchase a new facility and to carry on with
our plans for 21CM. I borrowed $50K from my sister (so that I wouldn't
have to deplete my own funds which I was certain would still be needed -
and they were) to complete the $85K building down payment and until June
1994 continued to finance the outfitting of the new facility and the
start of research there. Luckily, just as my meager assets were nearing
full depletion, Saul Kent and Bill Faloon's troubles with the FDA were
nearing successful conclusion and Saul and Bill were able take up the
financing of the 21CM facility and its research.

7. The 21CM facility, then,  was purchased to be a home for 21CM (the
"front" organization) and its above freezing, standard-medicine-oriented
research; for the human cryopreservation operations of Mike Darwin's
BioPreservation suspension team; and for the cryopreservation research
which was to be the prerogative of CLI. Later, after the formation of
CryoCare in September 1993 and the clear (to us) need for a separate
long-term cryonics care organization, I agreed to assume this chore and
incorporated CryoSpan in October 1993 (at the same time at which
CryoCare Foundation and BioPreservation were incorporated). Thus, the
21CM facility became the home for CryoSpan also and all decisions about
the location of CryoSpan vis-a-vis protection and care of patients then
and later (before building the silo vaults which "locked" me in) were
based upon the "clear and obvious" fact that patient care operations
would be housed in a facility owned and staffed by supportive people. 

8. However, as "the best laid plans of mice and men go oft astray", so
too did the plans for CLI to do cryopreservation research. For various
reasons which I don't wish to rehash, by the spring of 1996, it had
become clear that major cryopreservation work would have to be done by
21CM if it was to be done at all. (However, this research - and the
consequent push for vitrification eventually leading to perfected
suspended animation - did not begin in earnest until the fall of 1996 -
after the start and the early success of the Prometheus Project, and
during the hype over Visser's rat heart reversible cryopreservation
claims.) For this reason, I decided to dissolve CLI after turning all of
its assets (the largest of which was a receivable from 21CM - part of
the contract by which 21CM purchased the rights to CLI's CAH research
both in the Colton lab and previously) into 21CM shares. This
dissolution of CLI and 6-1 purchase of the shares of CLI stockholders by
21CM was accomplished at the beginning of 1997. 

9. On a personal note, for reasons which I also don't wish to go into,
but about which I am certainly not happy, the plans for CryoSpan also
went completely astray and while I am still a major stockholder of both
21CM and CryoSpan, I am excluded from taking any part in the operational
decisions of either of them.

-- Paul --

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